Earth Interactions is published jointly by the American Meteorological Society, the American Geophysical Union, and the Association of American Geographers. Permission to use figures, tables, and brief excerpts from this journal in scientific and educational works is hereby granted provided that the source is acknowledged. Any use of material in this journal that is determined to be “fair use” under Section 107 or that satisfies the conditions specified in Section 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law (17 USC, as revised by P.L. 94-553) does not require the publishers’ permission. For permission for any other form of copying, contact one of the copublishing societies.